Population modeling of bald eagle health

We computed the population-scale impact of lead (Pb) in New York eagles from 1990 to 2018 using methods in Hanley et al. (2019) and Hanley et al. (2022).

Impact of lead (Pb) on eagles

View the preliminary dynamics of Pb, Pb-reduced, and Pb-free eagles in NY:

Female dynamics      Male dynamics

Using cutting edge computational techniques, we assessed the population-scale impacts of Pb on bald eagles in the New York.

Bald eagle in a new nest

Further details

Questions can be directed to Brenda Hanley or Krysten Schuler.

Financial support was provided in part the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and in part by the Morris Animal Foundation under grant # D18ZO-103. The contents of this web site, the links, the interactive apps, cited literature, and the narratives have not been reviewed nor endorsed by the Department nor the Foundation, and the views expressed in this content do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department nor Foundation, its officers, directors, affiliates or agents. 


Hanley, B, Them, C, Hynes, K, Connelly, P, Bunting, E, & Schuler, K. Population impact to bald eagles of ingested lead (Pb) in New York state, 1990-2018. In peer review. 

Hanley, B, Them, C, Connelly, P, Hynes, K, Bunting, E, & Schuler, K. 2022. NYCounterPOPd Version 2 [Software]. Cornell University Library eCommons Repository. https://doi.org/10.7298/rsse-e634.2.​

Hanley, B, Dhondt, A, Forzán, M, Bunting, E, Pokras, M, Hynes, K, Dominguez-Villegas, E. & Schuler, K. 2022. The population scale impacts of lead toxicosis on Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Northeast United States. Journal of Wildlife Management. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.22177.

Hanley, B, Dhondt, A, Dennis, B, & Schuler, K. 2019. Using time series data to assess recent population dynamics of Bald Eagles in the northeast United States. Ecosphere. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2963.